Worst Forms of Child Labour Data


Zambia
Region Africa
Population 8,976,000
Population under 18 4,939,000
Total Child Labour

NATIONAL STATISTICS

* The ILO estimated that 564,000 children were in the work force during the year. (US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2000, February 2001)

* The Survey results show that a total of 595,033 of children aged 5-17 years were found to have worked during the last twelve months. There were 347,357 between the age of 5 and 14, who reported to have worked over the same period. This represents more than half (58 %) of all the working children. (ILO, Zambia-Child Labour Survey Country Report, 1999)

* The distribution of working children in the past 12 months by industry shows that working children were predominantly found in the agricultural sector. This sector had 501,747 working children. Trading accounted for the second most popular industrial activity with 36,836 children engaged in this activity, while personal services such as hairdressing accounted for the third largest industrial activity with 30,685 working children. Business services such as money lending were found to be less predominant with 6,555 children engaged in this activity while fishing accounted for 6,521 working children. (ILO, Zambia-Child Labour Survey Country Report, 1999)

* For the year 2000, the ILO projects that there will be 196,000 economically active children, 91,000 girls and 105,000 boys between the ages of 10-14, representing 15.61% of this age group. (ILO, International Labour Office - Bureau of Statistics, Economically Active Population 1950-2010, STAT Working Paper, ILO 1997)

* There are an estimated 150,000 children in the work force. (US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 1999, 25 February 2000)

* In 1995, there were 186,000 economically active children between the ages of 10-14, representing 16.27% of this age group, 87,000 girls and 100,000 boys. (ILO, International Labour Office - Bureau of Statistics, Economically Active Population 1950-2010, STAT Working Paper, ILO 1997)

GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* Approximately 85% of those children are engaged in the worst forms of child labour, including street begging and prostitution. (US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2000, February 2001)

* 87% of working children were found in the agricultural occupations, most of whom (96%) lived in the rural areas. (ILO, Zambia-Child Labour Survey Country Report, 1999)

* The child labour law is not enforced for those who work in subsistence agriculture, domestic service, and the informal sector, where children under the age of 16 often are employed. (US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 1999, 25 February 2000)

Child Slavery -
Child Trafficking GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* It is thought that Zambian girls are being trafficked to third countries such as the USA, Israel and Russia by way of Johannesburg and Durban. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring /online_database/index.asp)

* Reports dating back to 1997 state that Zambian girls are also being trafficked via Botswana. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp)

* An undisclosed number of Zambian girls had been ferried to Botswana, headed for the sex tourism industry in other countries. (CATW Fact Book, citing African Child Watch, "Child Trafficking Takes Root in Southern Africa, Says Group", SAPA DPA, 1 September, 1997)

* The Representative noted that trafficking in women was not a problem in Zambia. (CEDAW, Sessional/Annual Report, 1994)

Child Prostitution and Pornography

NATIONAL STATISTICS

* There are an estimated 70,000 child sex workers. (ECPAT Bulletin, citing Observer, August 1996)

* The Southern Province labour officers assessment report recorded the existence of approximately 1,000 girl prostitutes in each major town in the province. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* 1 in 3 children were involved in hazardous work including as child sex workers. (Child Labour: Harmful, Exploitative Press Clipping)

LOCAL STATISTICS

* A survey by YWCA on child sexual abuse in Lusaka and Luangwa bridge found that 34% of people interviewed had been forced to have sex for payment in cash or kind before they were 14. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* The number of child prostitutes in Zambia has increased considerably. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp)

* Child prostitution exists throughout the country with the worst areas being Lusaka and Livingstone. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp)

* Children as young as 10 years old are reported to have become involved in prostitution. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp)

* According to CHIN, three-fourths of the sex workers are between the ages of 9 and 19. (ECPAT, CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp)

* An undisclosed number of Zambian girls had been ferried to Botswana, headed for the sex tourism industry in other countries. (CATW Fact Book, citing African Child Watch, "Child Trafficking Takes Root in Southern Africa, Says Group", SAPA DPA, 1 September, 1997)

* Children are used as prostitutes or as lures for the tourist industry. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

* There is an increasing demand for young girls particularly 13-14-year-old for prostitution because of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* An increasing number of grade 7 and 9 school drop-outs are turning to prostitution because of perceived lack of alternatives to income earning opportunities. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* Preliminary findings of a rapid assessment survey undertaken by YWCA in three areas of Lusaka Province reveal that children as young as 10 are engaged in sexual activity. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* There exists inter-generational prostitution where the children of adult prostitutes are being inducted into prostitution. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* Growth and development of male child prostitution, where boys are sexually exploited by 'sugar mommies' and homosexual men, is reported. (Child Abuse in Zambia, August 1996)

* The Representative noted that in Zambia prostitution existed. (CEDAW, Sessional/Annual Report, 1994)

Children in Crime

GENERAL JUVENILE CRIME STATISTICS

* 0.1% of total prisoners are juveniles. (UNDP, Human Development Report, 1999)

GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* Children are used for peddling and trafficking drugs. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

Child Soldiers NOTES ON GOVERNMENT FORCES

* There is no report of underage recruitment in the country, but there is a chance of arbitrary assessment of age as only less than 10% of Zambian children are registered at birth. (CSUCS, Africa Report, April 1999, citing Afronet and UNICEF)

Domestic Child Servants

NATIONAL STATISTICS

* 1 in 3 children were involved in hazardous work, including in domestic service. (Child Labour: Harmful, Exploitative Press Clipping)

GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* Children, often female orphans, are made to work as domestic workers. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

Other Hazardous
Child Labour

GENERAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS

* Children are employed in small scale mining, fishing etc. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

* Children are involved in the urban informal sector e.g. stone crushing, carrying heavy blocks, street vending, garbage picking etc. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

SPECIFIC SECTORS

* Commercial Agriculture - Children are involved in commercial farming. (UNICEF Zambia, Child Labour in Zambia: A briefing note, March 1997)

* Street Children - The number of street children in Lusaka jumped from 35,000 in 1991 to 90,000 in 1998, partly because of the growing number of parents who have died from AIDS. (US Dept of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 1999, 25 February 2000)

* Street Children - Street children are mostly males and between 7-14 years. Current estimates indicate that the population of street children in Zambia is 75,000 including 52,000 between 6-14 years and 23,000 between 15-18 years. 61% of street girl children are between 7-14 years. (G. Lungwangwa, Street Children in Zambia: A Situation Analysis, December 1996)

* Street Vending - In urban areas children commonly engage in street vending. (EI, EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 1998)


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